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Boston’s “most beautiful building” shatters library stereotypes

Designed by William Rawn Associates, Architects, with Ann Beha Architects, the new 2010 Harleston Parker Medal-winning Cambridge Public Library represents everything a library should be: not a mausoleum for printed books but a place brimming with activity and appealing to diverse people of all ages. “We were looking for a new paradigm for a public library: one that captured the very best qualities of a modern bookstore to foster browsing and spontaneously finding items of interest,” says Cambridge Library Director Susan Flannery.

Infused with natural light, the library’s main level now contains the most highly circulated pieces of the library’s collection, including new titles, periodicals and DVDs. Conversation, food and beverages are allowed everywhere on the ground floor, and there is space set aside for a cafe area (which has vending machines for the time being).

“Susan was the perfect client: visionary about what a public library could be but also very pragmatic,” says Clifford Gayley AIA, LEED AP, principal at William Rawn Associates. “She’s changed the image of the library from a place restricted by a long list of rules to a place of possibility and activity.”

Completed in 2009, the $69 million project is a true marriage of old and new—one in which both sides of the power couple would claim to be the “better half” if only they didn’t work so well together. A new 77,000-sf building, constructed by Consigli Construction and J.F. White Contracting, connects seamlessly to the 27,000-sf historic library, which was built in 1889 and designed by Van Brunt & Howe. From a formal composition standpoint, the buildings carry equal weight—acting as a study in contrasts for all that they are, united by their materials and colors. Meanwhile, a city park around the library was greatly expanded by moving a parking lot underground.

William Rawn Associates designed the new building to bring the park into the library and the library into the great outdoors. Visitors enter the building at grade with the park. A highly transparent, multistory double-skin glass curtainwall along its front blurs the boundaries between the interior and exterior. People passing through the park can spy the books and activity inside, while those hanging out in the library’s reading areas feel surrounded by the park’s mature trees.

Ann Beha Architects led the extensive restoration of the historic building, including the installation of a new slate roof, cleaning the polychrome granite and brownstone masonry, and razing a 1960s addition to reveal two historic facades. Indoors, the firm brought the dark-oak reading room back to its original Victorian paint colors and glory. Meanwhile, WPA-era murals depicting the 10 “divisions of knowledge” within the Dewey Decimal System draw the eye upward—now that they’ve been restored by the same conservationist who cleaned the John Singer Sargent murals at the MFA.

The design team went beyond partnering on finishes and furniture to jointly develop a creative program.

Genevieve Rajewski is a Boston-based freelance writer who covers science, nature, animal issues, travel, food and passionate people for acclaimed publications such as Smithsonian, Washington Post Magazine, and The Boston Globe. Her website is

Five questions for David Lee FAIA

On October 7, at its national conference in Boston, the National Organization of Minority Architects honors Stull and Lee with a lifetime achievement for the firm’s work in architecture and advocacy.

The BSA recently spoke to David Lee FAIA—a partner of Stull and Lee, a past BSA president and its 2000 Award of Honor recipient—about his favorite and current projects, the economy and his love of music.

Which of your projects are you the most proud of?

Ever the optimist, whenever I’m asked that question, I want to say, “My next one.” When piano player Keith Jarrett one night asked Miles Davis why he didn’t perform his familiar ballads more often, Miles famously replied, in his raspy voice, “Because I love them too much.” Miles was always exploring and challenging himself to do something else. I’d like to think I have that gene—that I could always do something better. But in terms of what’s done, there are two projects.

On the urban-design scale, there’s the Southwest Corridor transit project. As coordinating architects and urban designers, we conceived the notion of creating a linear park that would link important sites along the way and evolve over time. It’s a real jewel, and I’m proud of what it has done to stimulate development and revive several neighborhoods that had gone into decline because of the uncertainty around the originally proposed highway project.

I’m also proud of our collaboration with William Rawn Associates on a mixed-use building at Northeastern [University] called Building F. We were responsible for the design of the John D. O’Bryant African-American Institute, which, for many years, had been a major gathering place for Northeastern students of color. We created a visually distinct identity with some very iconic features for the institute, while working with Bill to make sure it all worked together as a total composition. The university uses many of those facilities for general classrooms, so now African-American and other students of other ethnic descents used to being in classrooms dominated by Western-civilization imagery get to spend time in meeting rooms and computer rooms that are visually related to Cape Verdean, African and African-American themes as well.

What are you working on right now?

Locally, we have teamed up with GUND Partnership to work with principal developers Elma Lewis Partners on a site near Ruggles Station. Elma Lewis was an important African-American cultural figure in Boston, and we’ll be working on a mixed-use development that includes retail and office space, as well as a museum and cultural center that is a continuation of her work.

Nationally, we are co-leading a project with Sasaki Associates in Pittsburgh’s Hill District, which is a historically significant African-American community. The neighborhood was home to many important musicians—Billy Eckstine, Ahmad Jamal, George Benson—as well as many Negro Baseball League teams, most notably the Pittsburgh Crawfords.

It’s been such a difficult last few years for architects at all stages of their careers. Have you ever thought about leaving the profession?

When I first got to college and discovered advertising design and industrial design, I thought, That’s pretty cool. And Mad Men has only reinforced the appeal of the creative side of advertising.

Another time that comes to mind is one day much later in my career. I was now a firm principal in Boston, and it was raining and miserable outside. I had been asked to consider applying for the deanship of the University of Southern California, and I remember looking out the window and thinking, If I could quit this job, I would. But as the boss, that’s hard to do.

On a more serious note, I will say that I never expected at this point of my career to be challenged in the ways that we are. The competition is fierce. People are slashing fees and providing free services. Big firms are going after jobs they never would have chased in the past. It’s ugly.

Having taught at the Harvard GSD, MIT and RISD, I know how hard architecture students work and how much it costs them to get through school. So to see them graduate and not be able to find a job is so painful. And it’s just as painful to see talented professionals with lots of energy and experience—never mind families to support—also struggling.

I have to admit I am frustrated with the Obama administration, as much as I support him and what he said he was going to do. The fact that they have not stood their ground on using the infrastructure spending to help the country as a whole is really disappointing. I don’t think we are going to look back 30 years from now and see anything that compares to national achievements like the Hoover Dam, the Merritt Parkway or some of the other wonderful WPA-era buildings.

What should the BSA be using ArchitectureBoston to talk about right now?

Job creation.

One of my colleagues while I was teaching at the GSD was Margaret Crawford, who did a studio once where she challenged the students and the City of Cambridge to come up with 100 good ideas around urban-design issues.

Given that the BSA is 143 years old, let’s ask for 143 creative ideas to get architects back to work. The ideas should be double-bottom-line approaches, so there are social and economic benefits as well as design benefits. Who wouldn’t be compelled to submit something worthy of making that list of wonderful projects that would get people working and celebrate what we are capable of achieving?

We know you love music. What are you listening to on your iPod these days?

I heard Allen Toussaint interviewed on NPR and downloaded his stuff right away. I’m about to meet up with some high school buddies to descend on New York City. As we were emailing back and forth, I was listening to “Jelly, Jelly” by Billy Eckstine and the Count Basie Orchestra, and its big-band thing sounded so good to me, I told them that’s my pick hit for the day. My favorite recent album, which is just a great grown-up album, is by Joe Sample and Randy Crawford. It’s called Feeling Good, and it’s just a most amazing and beautiful album.

Genevieve Rajewski is a Boston-based freelance writer who covers science, nature, animal issues, travel, food and passionate people for acclaimed publications such as Smithsonian, Washington Post Magazine, and The Boston Globe. Her website is

For more on Lee, read the recent Boston Globe profile on Stull and Lee and a piece written by Lee for Progressive Architecture during the last recession.


Curtain call: The new technology on display at the CPL is sure to inspire encore building performances

The Cambridge Public Library (CPL) won over the 2010 Harleston Parker Medal jury for a host of reasons. But of particular interest to the local building community is that the library is the first U.S. building to incorporate the three key features of advanced European double-skin curtainwall technology: a 3-foot-deep air space, a multistory thermal flue and 12-inch movable sun shades.

Clifford Gayley AIA, LEED AP, principal at William Rawn Associates, speaks about what that all means, particularly for this notable civic project.

What design challenge were you trying to meet with this new technology?

With the double-skin curtainwall, we were interested in exploring the library as a new type of civic building. When the historic Van Brunt & Howe library was built in 1889, it was the epitome of the Victorian-era “library in the park”—a solid and commanding presence, surrounded by green space with a grand stair leading to the front door. We wanted to create a contemporary vision for a library in the park: a decidedly transparent, welcoming and accessible place that brings the experience of a park into the library—a new kind of civic building.

The challenge was achieving maximum transparency in an environmentally appropriate way. Conventional methods are limiting. External louvers must be big and heavy enough to withstand wind and snow loads. Tinted glass, which cuts down the solar heat gain on people and books inside, also makes the building appear opaque from the outside. We wanted the glass surface to appear transparent and shimmering, not reflective and dark. We needed a new solution.

How did you decide to go with a double-skin curtainwall?

The decision involved significant research. Double-skin curtainwalls are relatively new in the United States, but they have been used in Europe for decades. We were able to tap into that experience and quickly educate ourselves. Principal Bill Rawn, project architect Kevin Bergeron and I took a trip to Germany and London with our façade consultant, Arup, for a tour of about a dozen buildings with different types of double-skin curtainwalls. Some were quite simple, and some were very intricate. It was a great opportunity to see firsthand the benefits of the technology as well as its potential issues.

During our trip we observed how effectively double-skin walls maximize transparency and daylight while controlling building temperature. Because we visited these buildings during the dead of winter, we were able to directly experience the temperature difference between the inside and outside glass. The inside glass felt as warm as an interior wall. It was amazing. We also observed examples that made the case for keeping things simple: one building had a highly interactive louver system that raised and lowered the louvers each time light sensors detected sun or clouds, requiring a full-time maintenance staff, which our public project could not offer. From these precedents, we were able to learn valuable lessons for deploying double-skin curtainwall technology, and we knew we needed to go with a version that had few moving pieces and, therefore, lower maintenance requirements.

How does the curtainwall at the CPL work?

The library’s double-skin curtainwall is its main façade (180 feet long, 42 feet high), celebrating both visual transparency and thermal comfort. Two layers of glass define a continuous 3-foot air space and a multistory flue with operable vents, top and bottom. During colder months, these vents are closed, allowing solar-heated air to create a thermal blanket. During warmer months, these vents are opened, creating a natural airflow that draws heat up and out of the wall cavity.

Inside the 3-foot cavity, 12-inch horizontal adjustable louvers provide solar control. They are positioned to block direct solar heat from entering the building, trapping the heat in the cavity wall, where it can be used or vented. They also are slightly curved to redirect daylight into the building interior. Reflecting the lesson of keeping things simple, these louvers are always deployed (only retracted for annual window washing) and are limited to two positions: horizontal and canted 45 degrees forward. For half the year, the louvers do not move—remaining horizontal during the summer and 45 degrees during the winter. For the other half-year, the two “shoulder” seasons, the louvers rotate only once each day, from horizontal in the morning to 45 degrees in the afternoon.

Was it difficult to employ something so cutting-edge in an addition to a historic building?

Throughout the design process, the City of Cambridge was highly supportive of a very contemporary building and a historic building coming together to form the new library. We and our colleagues, Ann Beha Architects (who led the effort on the historic building), worked closely with Charles Sullivan of the Cambridge Historical Commission and with the Mid-Cambridge Neighborhood Conservation District Commission, who urged us to celebrate innovation in our building, pointing out that, in its day, the historic building had been quite innovative as a library with its state-of-the-art book-delivery system. We believe that the project benefited from the city’s nuanced understanding of history, which steered the project away from trying to replicate the historic architecture. Instead, old and new together stand shoulder to shoulder and define a new civic park.

Genevieve Rajewski is a Boston-based freelance writer who covers science, nature, animal issues, travel, food and passionate people for acclaimed publications such as Smithsonian, Washington Post Magazine, and The Boston Globe. Her website is

Top: 1, Exterior Glazing. 2, Interior Glazing. 3, Structural Frame. 4, Operable Sun Shade. 5, Sun Shade Canopy. 6, Lower Operable Ventilation. 7, Upper Operable Ventilation. Image by William Rawn Associates.

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